Sarah Fortune is her real name, Miss Fortune is made to sound like misfortune.
This relates to the old sailor myth that women on ships were bad luck.
Her Ultimate's name, Šablóna:Ai, is based off of a term used in movies in which all action goes into slow-motion, a term coined by the movie Šablóna:W.
Her matched pistols ('Shock' and 'Awe') are a reference to a Šablóna:W which dictates the use of overwhelming firepower and battlefield awareness to drain the enemy's will to fight back.
Miss Fortune was one of the champions available to be chosen for the Noxian pool during the 2nd Ionia vs. Noxus match. She was one of the selected champions.
She could be a reference to Rue Meridian from "The Voyage of the Jerle Shannara" books by Terry Brooks. Rue Meridian is an airship crew member/mercenary that "is capable of charming any man" She ia also visually similar. Gangplank may be visually based off her brother, a captain of the ship.
Miss Fortune is searching for the person who killed her mother, a man with red eyes.
Miss Fortune has a strong distrust for pirates and she finds herself constantly bickering with the infamous Šablóna:Ci (the only captain to resist her charms) over the direction of Bilgewater politics.